PhD in History
Genocide, deportations and Armenians’ territorial claims to the Azerbaijani people
(XIX – XX centuries)
THE ARMENIAN FACTOR IN THE POLICY OF
CZARIST RUSSIA IN THE CAUCASUS
Armenians’ relocation to the Turkic-Muslim territories
after the capture of the South Caucasus
Back in the beginning of the 17th century, Armenians managed to draw attention of European states to the East, by using their Christian faith, they intended to realize dreams and objectives concerning creation of “the great Armenia”.
These intentions of Armenians appeared to be a heavenly gift for European states, namely for Pope, as he intended to spread Christianity in the East, also it was important for Russia to realize its occupation plans in relation to the southern seas.
In the 18th-19th centuries the territories of the Middle East, primarily of Iran and the Ottoman Empire, turned to a place of fight between the states like England and Czarist Russia, which had special intentions. The main pretext to enter these territories was to help ‘’the brothers of faith”.
Bringing to life Peter the Great’s covenants, Czarist Russia in its occupation policy in the south skillfully used the Armenian factor. Following the Gulustan (1813) and Turkmanchay (1828) treaties, concluded as a result of the Russian-Iranian wars and the South Caucasus annexation to Russia,also due to a peace treaty concluded in Edirne as a result of the Russian-Turkish war in 1828-1829, Armenians massively moved to the South Caucasus, where they were relocated to the lands of the Turkic-Muslim population. The official documents of the Caucasus Archeographic commission’s acts show clearly the fact that before the seizure of the South Azerbaijan by Czarist Russia, Christian population, basically Armenians, was in the minority of the whole population living in the territory of the Azerbaijani khanates. So, out of the 12 thousand families living in the Karabakh khanate 2,5 thousand were Christian, in the Shamakhi khanate out of the 24 thousand families - 1,5 thousand were Christian, and in the territory of the Shamakhi khanate Christian families made up only one third of 15 thousand families living there .
We have a great amount of facts revealing the relocation issues of some part of the Turkic-Muslim population to Iran and the Ottoman Empire, that were living in the territory of the Azerbaijani khanates in the South Caucasus, after annexation of these territories to Russia as a result of the Russian-Iranian wars, also about the Armenians’ relocation by the Czarist Russia from Iran and the Ottoman Empire to the South Caucasus and their resettlement in the territories belonging to the Turkic-Muslim population. It confirms as well changes in the demographic composition of the Armenian population in the territories of the Erivan, Nakhichevan and Karabakh khanates which happened due to resettlements conducted by Russia. There is also lots of information about the role of the Armenian generals and officers in the case of the Armenians movement to the South Caucasus and their resettlement to the territories belonging to Muslims, among them we can mention V.Madatov, Q.Lazarev, Q.Korqanov, V.Bekhbudov, A.Arqutinskiy and the others, who managed to gain the trust of such ardent chauvinists like A.Yermolov and I.Paskevich during Russian armies invasion into the Caucasus and Iran. A particular role belonged to Q.Lazarev in this case, who was invited by I.Paskevich from Saint Petersburg and was appointed as a commandant to Tabriz. As soon as the news about Q.Lazarev’s appointment as a commandant to Tabriz had spread, Armenians from all the Azerbaijani khanates flocked to forward the request to His Majesty the Russian Emperor on the fact that the Armenians “would be happy to live and die in his sultanate” or “They would prefer the Russian weed grass to the Iranian bread” and etc..
Already on December 24, 1829, Q.Lazarev in his precise report to I.Paskevich was informing that during three and a half months 40 thousand Armenians constituting more than 8 thousand families had passed across the Araks and were relocated to Erivan, Nakhichevan and Karabakh.
During the war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, in 1828-1829, the commander of the Russian army I.Paskevich, holding the western provinces of the country, appointed Armenians as commandants to the places. These commandants tormented the Turkic-Muslim population of those places. Following the signing of the treaty in 1829, in Edirne between Russia and the Ottoman Empire more than 14 thousand Armenian families (84 600 men), in fear of criminals they had committed in relation to the Turkic-Muslim population, left the Ottoman lands with the help of the Russian army and relocated to the Russian territory, mainly in the South Caucasus.
Following the Russia’s takeover of the South Caucasus, on the initiative of I.Paskevich, the Russian Emperor Nikolay the First issued a decree on creation of the Armenian region in the territory of the former Erivan and Nakhichevani khanates. Since April, 1829, till May, 1832, the Armenian region was put on a cameral list. As directed by I.Paskevich, the civilian adviser I.Shopen was appointed to the position. Based on collected records he wrote a huge work entitled as “A historical monument of the Armenian region’s state in the period of its joining to the Russian Empire”, which was published in 1852 in the printing house of Saint Petersburg Sciences Academy.
In his book I.Chopin gave detailed information on Armenians, the Armenian region, generally about the total number of Armenians all around the world. The book draws attention to the fact that here one can find separately analyzed demographic changes among the Armenian population before and after their migration. I.Chopin presented separately the number of Armenians before and after their resettlement by Russia to the South Caucasus. He points out that only 6 946 Armenian families lived (35 560 men) in the whole Armenian region before their resettlement, from them 3 498 families (20 073 men) lived in the Erivan province, 530 families (2 690 men) lived in the Nakhichevani province, and 400 families (2 388 men) were in the Ordubad district.
In 1828-1829, 6 946 families (35 560 men) were resettled from Iran to the Armenian region founded by Russia, till 1830, 3 682 Armenian families moved (21 666 men) from Turkey, only within three years 10 628 Armenian families (57 226 men) moved from Iran and Turkey. As a result, yet in 1830 the number of the Armenian families in this region had reached up to 15 059 families (82 277 men).
According to the cameral data, in 1829 -1832, 9 196 Azerbaijani families (49 875 men) were living among the local population, whereas the Armenian population accounted for 3 498 families (20 073 men) in the Erivan region, established in the territory of the former Erivan khanate, where nowadays one can’t see any Azerbaijanis. In 1828-1830 this territory was resettled by the 4 559 families (23 563 men) from Iran and 3 674 families (21 639 men) from Turkey. As a result within three years only to the Erivan region, established in the territory of the Erivan khanate, 8 233 Armenian families (45 202 men) were resettled from Iran and Turkey.
In total there were 31 201 families (164 450 men) in the Armenian region after resettlement, from them 16 078 families (81 749 men) were Azerbaijanis and 15 059 families (82 277 men) were Armenians.
Main goals of the Russian colonial policy in the South Caucasus are reflected in the book of the Russian researcher N.Shavrov, entitled as “A new threat to the Russian case in Transcaucasia”. He wrote: “We launched our colonial policy in Transcaucasia with its being settled not by Russians, but by Gentiles… At the end of the two-year war, which had been lasting from 1826 till 1828, during the period from 1828 till 1830 we managed to resettle to Transcaucasia more than 40 thousand Armenians from Iran, 84 600 Armenians from Turkey, locating them on the best state lands of the Elizavetpol and Erivan provinces, with few Armenians living there”.
Certainly, it was Armenians’ first rush to the South Caucasus, which subsequently continued about a century. As it was written by N.Shavrov, out of the 1 million 300 thousand Armenians living in Transcaucasia at the beginning of the XX century, more than a million wasn’t a local population, and they were resettled to the places by the Russian state bodies.
It’s interesting that in the statistic reports and data issued by the Russian empire, especially in “The Caucasus calendar”, which was published more than half a century, in the editions on the results of the first All-Russian Population Census it was noted that the essential part of the population made up Azerbaijanis as well.
In the territory, radical changes in the rapid decrease of Azerbaijanis’ number had begun in 1918-1920 since the establishment of the Ararat Republic by the notorious party “Dashnaktsyutun”.
The Armenian nationalist parties, established at the end of the XIX century, and their territorial claims against Turkic-Muslims.
Under the influence of the democratic movement and revolutionary upsurge in Western Europe and Russia, as early as in 80s-90s of the XIX century, relocated to the South Caucasus Armenians had started to unite politically. Established by Armenians in 1885 in Vienna - “The Armenakan”, in 1886 in Geneva - “Qnchaq” and in 1890 in Tiflis -“Dashnaktsyutun” terrorist organizations’ main goal was to unite under their own flags all the Armenians, living in the three states – Russia, Turkey and Iran in the name of establishing “Greater Armenia”. Analyzing a huge amount of documents and records that we are possessing, we can conclude, that since their very establishment, that is the end of the XIX century, these parties with radical terrorism positions stood out especially for their style, geographical coverage and the degree of severity in their bloody crimes against other nations, particularly against peoples of Turkic origin, during historical events of that kind. The nationalist Armenian parties’ terrorism and sabotage activities, especially of “Dashnaktsyutun”, covered the territory of all the South Caucasus, Anadolu and the European part of the Ottoman Empire, the part of the Iranian territory, populated by the Azerbaijani Turks. In the report of the Viceroy’s Office in the Caucasus to the Baku mayor, dated 15 April 1909, it was stated: “With the aim to restore “free, greater Armenia”, as a primary means to achieve desired plans “Dashnaktsyutun” in its program had chosen the way of general insurrection and raising their regular army. The idea of raising zinvors’ (soldiers) army was founded by Dashnaktsyutun 16 years ago, at its first congress in 1892. Raising the army by zinvors and their arming for the party funds are ongoing and are still under way”.
The Armenian nationalist parties established in the Russian territory by the Russian authorities, since the 1990s of the XIX century, had organized massacres in Sausan, Van, Erzurum and in the other provinces of Turkey.
According to the information provided by Consul General of Russia in Van and Erzurum V.Mayevski, the Armenian priest T.Qeqemyants and the others, initiators of the national massacre in the territories were the Armenian nationalists, especially the Armenian committee members coming from Russia to Turkey.
The interesting fact is that both V.Mayevski and T.Qeqemyants emphasized especially the role of the Armenian priesthood for its spreading the nationalist propaganda among Armenians. V.Mayevski wrote: “Their (the Armenian priests – A.P.) religious activity is extremely insignificant, but on the other hand they always try their best to support the nationalist ideas… For centuries the nationalist ideas among Armenians were supported by numerous monasteries, located a long way from each other”.
Detailed information related to the activity of the “Dashnaktsyutun” party was prepared by the Elizavetpol governor A.Kachalov, on August 9, 1907. Dashnaks’ activity, as the main nationalist propaganda organizers among Armenians, their betraying social-democrat ideas and their attitude to other issues are analyzed in detail.
The Elizavetpol governor’s report had been widely used in the inquiries and features, prepared both by the Vicar’s office in the Caucasus and by the Police department of the Ministry of Internal affairs of Russia.
In his report the Elizavetpol governor wrote: “Nationalism – is Armenians’ primary national characteristic, coming from the very depths of its origin. Every Armenian considers himself higher, more intelligent, more cunning, nicer and more talented than anyone else – Russians, Georgians, Tatars (Azerbaijanis)… Nationalism, dedication to the faith and to the Mother tongue, greediness, prudence, ability to do everything, passion for money, the worship of wealth – these are Armenians’ principal distinguishing characteristics”.
“Dashnaktsyutun” united all the Armenian people, regardless of their social classes – peasants, workers, landowners, capitalists, students, priests and the Armenian officials, using the Decree on confiscation of the Armenian churches property, signed by the Russian tsar on June 12, 1903.
Armenians used to take part in all the anti-government protests in the South Caucasus during those years and moreover they used to spend money on realization of such ideas. A.Kachalov wrote that every vagabond, robber, thug, killer, who had been against Russia, was the most welcome guest in the rich Armenian’s palace, in the poor man’s shack and even in the monastery.
During that year, hundreds of crimes were committed by Armenians in the South Caucasus. In some mountainous regions they seized power; exploded and destroyed trains, railways, highways and bridges; the victims of the Armenian terror were high-ranking officials, police and gendarmerie (Alikhanov, Nakashidze, Andreyev, Bikov, Sakharov, and the others). The Elizavetpol governor wrote that these killings “were committed with unbelievable insolence in the overcrowded places witnessed by Armenians of different classes”. However there was hardly any eyewitness who could have exposed the killers”.
The Elizavetpol governor wrote about the zinvors’ army, raised during those years by the “Dashnaktsyutun” party: “It’s getting harder and harder to keep within the Transcaucasia 100.000 troops of zinvors, consisting generally of Armenians, fleeing from Turkey, and the local thugs, who had no other abilities, but to kill and abuse, getting high salaries from the party (the zinvors of the lowest rank used to get 300 rubles)”.
Under such conditions to find the way out and to maintain its authority, “Dashnaktsyutun” had decided to join the social-democratic movement, which was progressing in the South Caucasus, especially in the proletarian Baku, and started to spread social-democratic ideas. The Elizavetpol governor thought that such two-faced policy of the “Dashnaktsyutun” party had been the biggest betrayal of the social-democratic ideology. He wrote: “Nationalism for Armenians is such a fundamental factor, that it’s quite impossible for them to get rid of this feeling even for a short time… It’s rather hard to assure an ordinary Armenian, that Tatar-proletarian (Azerbaijanian) is closer to him, than the representative of the exploiting Armenian bourgeoisie, it’s just unimaginable“.
But in the report about the activity of the “Dashnaktsyutun” party, sent by the vicar’s Office in the Caucasus to the Baku governor on April 15, 1909, it was reported, that as a result of soon suppression of the Russian revolutionary movement, Armenians’ efforts to restore “greater Armenia” fell short. Under this situation they launched a wide propaganda campaign against Azerbaijanis in the South Caucasus. As a result, the Armenian-Azerbaijani conflict provoked by Armenians in Baku in February, 1905, which covered soon all the South Caucasus, grew into the Armenian-Azerbaijani massacre. Although Armenians provoked it themselves, the Armenian press in the South Caucasus, headed by “Dashnaktsyutun”, launched a big propaganda campaign against Azerbaijanis, by slandering our people. In the report, made by the special department of the vicar’s Office in the Caucasus, it was said, that Armenians had benefited from the massacre very skillfully. So, they managed to build definite border buffer zones between the territories of the South Caucasus, where Azerbaijanis and Armenians used to live earlier, in some cases even expanding their own areas due to the Azerbaijanis’ lands. But as a result of the conflict the lands left by the Azerbaijanis were settled by the Armenians from Turkey and partly from Iran.
In its report, the Police department of the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs pointed out that within 5-6 years on the lands of Elizavetpol, Erivan and Kars provinces, which had been abandoned unwillingly by helpless Muslims, were settled by about half a million Armenians from Turkey and partly from Iran and more than 200 thousand from them had already taken Russia’s citizenship.
Taking advantage of the current situation, its activity in Russia, especially in the South Caucasus, turned into a hidden struggle, according to the decree adopted in 1907 during the “Dashnaktsyutun” party’s fourth congress. Changing the course of the movement, they were determined to raise military dashnak troops over again, making troubles especially in the eastern provinces. The decree adopted by the “Dashnaktsyutun” party’s congress, held in Geneva on October 15, 1913, was clear evidence of Armenians’ cruelty and double game. According to the decree, “under the name of Pan-Islamic emissaries sent to the Caucasus”, the “Dashnaktsyutun” party members’ goal was to force Muslims to rebel against Russia”.
It was believed that in this situation “the Russian authorities will have to start repressions against Muslims, thereby weakening Muslim masses. Thus on the one hand “Armenians won’t meet any resistance from Muslims and on the other hand the danger of the Caucasian Muslims and the Anadolian Turks’ joint activity against Armenians will pass”.
The abovementioned numerous facts indicate that the Russian detective agencies got enough information about the plans of “Dashnaktsyutun” and the other Armenian parties. These programs were aimed not only at the Turk-Muslim population of Turkey and the South Caucasus, but they were also aimed at the czar authorities. And here the question arises as to why Russia was so loyal to that kind of enemy policy against itself and tolerated Armenians’ antics? It was caused by Russia’s goal to hold Armenians’ in reserve, as it was running occupation policy against the south, especially against the Ottoman Empire and Iran. During military operations between Russia’s and the Ottoman Empire’s armies, in the Caucasian front line, during World War I, the Armenians, serving in the Russian army, once again proved their atrocity against Turk-Muslim peoples. It should be noted as well, that before the October revolution, in 1917, despite the fact that both Russia and England, using Armenians, had promised them for their “merits” to help them realize the idea of “the greater Armenia”, they forgot about their promise as soon as they had reached their goals.
Armenians’ armed aggression against the Turk-Muslim populationof the South Caucasus in 1905-1906.
In 1810, from 2 235 residents of the Baku fortress and its surroundings only 55 were Armenians, in 1860, of 11 570 residents - 655 were Armenians. With the rapid development of the oil industry in Baku, in the 1970s of the XIX century, their inflow to Baku increased. As noted by Senator Kuzminsky, who was analyzing the reasons of the Armenian-Azerbaijani massacre in Baku and in the Baku province in 1905, Armenians’ massive inflow to Baku had increased particularly over the last 10-15 years of the XIX century, currently (that’s in 1905 – A.P.) they are about 18 per cent of the population”.
In his report Kuzminsky showed that the Armenians arriving to Baku had become very soon a majority in the oil industry, in trade and banking. Within a short period of time, the Armenians, turned into rich capitalists, had furthermore taken high ruling positions in the oil business.
Due to the boom in the oil industry and the proletarian class’ rapid growth in Baku at the beginning of the XIX century, here along with the Russian social-democrats and social-revolutionaries, very soon the Armenian social-democrat and social-revolutionary workers’ parties, consisting of qnchaks and dashnaktsyutuns, were established. These parties, established by Armenians, differed from the other ones not only by their programs, but also by their establishment period and directions. It was noted in Kuzminsky’s report, that the dashnaktsyutuns were promoting actively Armenians, if possible, by arming them, they were raising fighting troops and “were sending them more than once to Turkey to combat”. He wrote that following the czar’s decree, in 1903, on the requisition of the property, which belonged to the Armenian Church, “Dashnaktsyutun” turned its activity, which earlier was against Turkey, this time against Russia and the Russian government.
The Armenian-Azerbaijani massacre, in 1905-1906, began in Baku on February 6, 1905, at the end of the church service, in the centre of Baku, the Armenians, gathered near the Church, murdered the resident of Baku, Aqa Rza Babayev, who was passing by. The incident caused a large-scale massacre, which covered not only Baku, but also the whole South Caucasus, killing thousands of men, throwing people into agony and hardship within a period of almost two years.
The Baku Governor knyaz (prince) M.Nakashidze prepared a detailed report on the Armenian-Azerbaijani massacre in Baku, on February 6-9, 1905, which was sent to the Governor of the Caucasus and to the Russian Minister of Internal Affairs on February 28. The number of deaths during Baku events, on February 7-9, was incomplete in the report, and it was stated that the number of casualties was more than given figures. Many of the dead were hidden. And most of them were Muslims. They were hiding their wounded and dead so that to escape an autopsy.
During those events the life of the city had almost stopped, the shops, the clubs, the educational institutions were closed; the phaetons and the horse cars didn’t work. Only on February 9, after the representatives of the both peoples with the participation of the Baku Governor M.Nakashidze had gone round the city, calling people for peace, the massacre was stopped. In his report M.Nakashidze wrote: “Despite the fact that the Armenians were the perpetrators of the events, they were spreading rumors, stating that during these events the poor Armenians had been the innocent victims of improper actions committed by the Administration and the other bodies”.
Pointing out that these “inglorious people achieved their goal”, in the report concerning the position of the “Dashnaktsyutun” party and the Armenian press on the Armenian-Muslim massacre, the Governor wrote: “By spreading their disgusting lies worldwide verbally and by press, they turned the Armenian population against civil servants of administrative offices and other bodies to a point that each of them constantly felt insecure”.
On May 11 of the same year the Baku Governor M.Nakashidze was killed by Armenians. The Armenian-Azerbaijani massacre in Baku was lasting from August 20 until mid-September, 1905.
The Baku police chief gave detailed information on the Armenian-Azerbaijani massacre in Baku during August-September of that year to the Provisional Governor General of Baku.
On September 10, 1905, the Caucasian Governor General, I.Vorontsov-Dashkov, arrived in Baku to conclude a truce. On September 14 of that year more than thousand Armenians and Azerbaijanis, headed by progressive intellectuals and priests, gathered on Dunskaya square, in Baku. Here the gubernia cadi M.M.Mirdjafarzade, the Armenian priest and the Provisional Governor General, addressing to the people, called everyone for peace.
In our archives there are enough documents with suggestions of the both sides to prepare terms of the armistice. The commission of eminent persons was established to hold negotiations. They were corresponding and negotiating actively. Peace negotiations, hold between both nations’ representatives with the participation of the Governor of the Caucasus and his deputies in Tiflis, in February, 1906, were reflected in the book “Bloody years” by M.S.Ordubady and “The Armenian-Tatar (Azerbaijani – A.P.) chaos in the Caucasus as one of the phases of the Armenian issue” by V.Mayevsky.
During discussions of the issue by the representatives of both nations, Armenians once again exposed themselves by showing their true colors. Events of the Armenian-Azerbaijani massacre in Baku, in 1905-1906, initiated by Armenians, are reflected in the official documents. We can say that in the other parts of the South Caucasus there’ve hardly ever been any documents concerning the events. The Armenian-Azerbaijani relations in the South Caucasus during that time were reflected in the books like “Bloody years” written by the writer-journalist M.S.Ordubady based on collected documents and records and published in 1911; “The Armenian-Azerbaijani massacre in 1905-1906” written by M.M.Navvab, and also in periodical press reports and articles of those years.
In the preface to his book “Bloody years”, M.S.Ordubady noted that he had written the book due to documents and inquiries, based on 245 letters and more than 400 reports on the activity of the “Dashnaktsyutun” party.
Mir Mokhsun Navvab wrote that Russia’s ruling in the Caucasus brought peace to these places. There were no attacks between the nations. “Particularly love and friendship between Armenians and Muslims were prevailing; they were trading with each other… Unfortunately, the nature of the Armenian nation has changed by now. Their inner and outside worlds are quite different. Seemingly they can be your friends, but inside their attitude to you is quite hostile. They realize that their hostile nature just harms them”.
Though M.M.Navvab had been living for a long time in the same city with Armenians, he couldn’t spot the Armenians’ guile on time and he reasoned such kind of changes by the fact that “The Erivan Armenians were extremely hostile, vindictive, arrogant and always involved in intrigues”.
According to the documents collected by M.S.Ordubady, M.M.Navvab and taken from periodical press, detailed information is provided concerning the massacre initiated by Armenians in 1905-1906, not only in Baku, but also in Gandja, Nakhichevan, Shusha, Djabrail, Zangazur, Erivan, Echmiadzin (Uchkilse), Tiflis, Kazax, Ordubad, Oxchu-Shabadake and in other places. Analyzing the given information, we can conclude that in the places where Armenians used to be opposed, they suffered heavy casualties and crushing defeats, despite the fact that Armenians used to outnumber the Turks-Muslims in armament, numbers and military tactics. Armenians defeat in the Nakhichevany uyezd or, 50 years old man, Novruz Kazim’s call to the people of the Mankus village, in the Erivan guberniya, who were fleeing from the Armenians: “Guys! Where are you fleeing? Are you going to disgrace us, the Caucasian Muslims, in front of the other nations? Do you think you’ll be in safe by fleeing from the Armenians? No, you won’t! No! Our escape will just inspire them and they will insult us and our families as no one ever did. Aren’t they the same Armenians who were almost fleeing the Qirkhbulaq village a year ago, with a wave of my finger?! What’s going on with you now, you are fleeing them like sheep, taking your poor women with yourselves. All right then, run away, if you’re going to escape! I’ll oppose alone the Armenian armies and will die, defending!”
Fighting with the Armenians with a double-barrel in his arms, Novruz-kishi (kishi –a male) was resisting up to the last bullet. The Armenians took him, as he was charging the shot, murdered him, by torturing, and beheaded with the following words “this head belongs to the one who was leading a thousand five hundred Muslims”, first they sent it to Alexandropol, and then to Baku.
Most records collected by M.S.Ordubady reveal once again the Armenians’ cruelty and betrayal. One of the reports concerns terrible massacres committed by Armenians against the residents of the Umidly village, Djavanshir uyezd, on December 26, 1905. Loading carts with the most valuable things, the residents of the only Azerbaijani village left in Tartar had to leave the place with herds of cattle.Passing by the Armenian village Kheyvaly, they met Abram bek Khasan Djalalov, who offered them to spend the night in Khayvaly, and then in the morning to move ahead again. Innocent residents of Umidly believed the insidious Armenian and accepted his invitation. By Abram bek’s instigation the Armenian dashnaks had surrounded displaced people from Umidly, separated men and then beheaded them. Then they killed some women and children, some of them were insulted and abused. M.C.Ordubady also noted the fact that a letter, received by him with a description of the crime events, was soaked with the author’s tears.
Expressing his opinion regarding the events, M.S.Ordubady wrote: “Looking back to human history, it can be said, that no other people had ever tortured women, as it had been done by Armenians against the residents of Umidly. How can these crimes show mercy and justice, if they kill three or four kids in front of their mother and then abuse her, while her eyes are still full of tears?!
Isn’t that the Armenian culture?! I can’t imagine, what will be the end of the nation, seeking for independence and treating the others in such a heinous and inhuman way? How could this civilized people slaughter and shoot up to 150 women and men?”
To be continued ...
Translated by Gyunel Aqayarova
Head of the International relations sector
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